Fuel Sensor Article

1.  Typical application:

Diesel engines are used in many Transportation vehicles like trucks trains ships and stationary power generators. Many new developments in diesel driven engines are under way and will make them burn cleaner. But, the cleanliness does not only depend on the quality of the engine, the fuel itself has to be free of contaminants. Even minor amounts of contaminants can easily corrode engines, drastically reduce efficiency and ultimately create more pollution than necessary. Diesel can get contaminated in many ways, letting it sit for a long time, water will accumulate, or from distributing diesel from one container to another eventually reduces the purity.  This is difficult to control, but a sensor can be mounted on fuel pumps and trucks to constantly measure the purity, so one will at least know when it is causing damage or engines can be adjusted.

And finding out the purity of the diesel can be easy if done properly.  This sensor works with refraction rotation and color, which is a non-destructive way to measure the purity of the diesel. There are many different types of diesel, each country has different regulations for the contents of diesel fuel, or even simply, as in gasoline, different types of local diesel.

 

The sensor measures all optical properties.

 

It allows the use of the sensor for any kind of fuel or liquid.

 

1.1 

For vehicle = flow through the sensor with one wire communication.

Communication = LIN  - 2400 to 19 200 bd  - 1start 8 data 1 stop  - 64 identifiers

Hazardous area safety Class 1 group ABCD with one wire protection to protect against explosion and fire

 

1.2

For tank content measurement = Submersible handheld Palm XML also wireless

For sample testing with sample bottles handheld with Palm XML also wireless

Powered from Palm battery

Hazardous area safety Class 1 group ABCD with 4 wire safety barrier to protect against explosion and fire

 

Communication RS 232 XML

<device>

   <name>fuel sensor</name>

   <manufacturer>ia</manufacturer>

   <model>820</model>

   <serial>123456>/serial>

   <read>call</read>

</device>

 

<device>

   <name>fuel sensor</name>

   <manufacturer>ia</manufacturer>

   <model>820</model>

   <serial>123456</serial>

   <write>red123 yel123 gre123 blu123 ref123 pol123 tem123</write>

</device>

 

1.3

For pumping from tank to barrel = flow through the sensor with a PC

Hazardous area safety Class 1 group ABCD with 4 wire safety barrier to protect against explosion and fire

Communication RS 232 XML

Hazardous area safety with 4 wire safety barrier

 

Communication RS 232 XML

<device>

   <name>fuel sensor</name>

   <manufacturer>ia</manufacturer>

   <model>820</model>

   <serial>123456>/serial>

   <read>call</read>

</device>

 

<device>

   <name>fuel sensor</name>

   <manufacturer>ia</manufacturer>

   <model>820</model>

   <serial>123456</serial>

   <write>red123 yel123 gre123 blu123 ref123 pol123 tem123</write>

</device>

 

2.  Principles:

All physical principles for liquids are temperature sensitive.

For this reason temperature is integrated in the sensor.

 

2.1

Measuring principle of the rotation with polarization state of light

Polarization state of light has 2 parameters

N = real part of complex refractive index = depends on absorption

K = image part of complex refractive index = depends on conductivity

N and K is unique for every material

 

See patent pending

 

The principle used in a fuel sensor is restricted and calibrated to rotation.  Rotation is a common used factor in determining C values from liquidTo define N and K Instant-Analysis uses the following principle:  Calibration is done with a microchip via UART and the formula is the following:

C1 = Set rotation to low value XX angle

C2 = Set rotation to high value XX angle

Negative angles are not considered because fuel and similar liquids are always positive

Measured value for low calibration point = A1

Measured value for high calibration point = A2

Measured value at any point = A

Formula for calibration = C1 + ( C2 – C1 ) ( A2 – A1 ) / ( A2 - A )


 

2.2

Measuring principle of refraction

Refraction is measured with 2 differential reading systems

 

Calibration is done with a microchip via UART and the formula is the following

C1 = Set refraction to low value  X.XX index of refraction

C2 = Set refraction to high value XXX index of refraction

Measured value for low calibration point = A1

Measured value for high calibration point = A2

Measured value at any point = A

Formula for calibration = C1 + ( C2 – C1 ) ( A2 – A1 ) / ( A2 - A )

Set refraction to low value X,XXX = index of refraction

 

See patent pending.

 

The principle of this invention is based upon Snell’s law: n1 sinq1 = n2 sinq2. Where n1 is the refractive index of the surrounding medium and n2 is the refractive index of the substance being measured, and q1 is the angle at which the electromagnetic wave (Referenced as em or electromagnetic wave or light through out document) touches a substance with respect to the normal and q2 is the angle at which it goes in to the liquid with respect to the normal.


 

2.3

Measuring principle of color

Color is measured with 4 reading systems

See patent pending

An output can be created over the whole visible spectra


 

3.  The sensor combines all 3 principles.

The measurements are taken sequentially to avoid overlapping from the emitting light

This also keeps the power consumption down.

The sensor is only active if asked otherwise it is in a sleep mode.

 

Time table for one complete cycle: